To Black Catholic Monthly Home Page

Featured Article: We joyfully announce the ‘Daniel Rudd Fund for African American Catholic Ministries’ - The Daniel Rudd Fund (DRF) for African American Catholic Activities was established by the National Black Catholic Congress (NBCC) Board of Trustees on Friday, November 8, 2013 in Baltimore, Maryland. It is a result of donations to the Congress to promote the ministry of African American Catholics. The Fund will financially support organizations who promote the NBCC Pastoral Plan. Read Full Story

NBCC STRUCTURE
 African American Catholic Bishops
 Congress Directory
 Board of Trustees
 NBCC Staff
Parish Search
 Find a Parish in your State
Black Catholic Newsletter
 We joyfully announce the ‘Daniel Rudd Fund for African American Catholic Ministries’
 “Influential” Ugandan Nun Shines Light on Sacred Tradition of Black Catholic Women
 The Death Penalty: It’s Adverse Impact on Communities of Color and The Poor, and Challenges to the Catholic Church
 Mental Illness Facts
 Marriage Retreat
 8 things you can do to prevent a stroke
Publications
 Book Of The Month:
The Catholic Church has the Answer
 Author Of The Month:
Sheree Brown-Johnson
NBCC Spotlight
 Fr. Juan Luxama
Black Catholic Profile
 Pamela R. Franco, Ph.D.
Upcoming Events
 Institute for Black Catholic Studies Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA
June 30 - July 19, 2014
 The 2015 OCDS National Congress
October 14-17, 2015
In The News
 The National Black Catholic Congress (NBCC) African American Catholic Youth Bible receives Imprimatur!
 Scholar recounts Black Catholics rich History
 Meet the ‘evangelical’ Catholics who are remaking the GOP
 Black and Born to Succeed is Released
 Phoenix priest killed, another wounded in attack
 Pope condemns mafia, says members are excommunicated
 Are We Willing to Die for the Mass?
 Nudist Claims Catholic Saint Francis Embraced Body Freedom, Plans Naked March To Religious Shrine
 IRAQ: ‘Crisis on top of a crisis’ as food, water become scarce in upheaval
 Perkasa thanks God for judgment
 Msgr. Leonard Scott Retires
 Faithful honor martyred Ugandan saint: Waltham service attended by 200
NBCC Media
  Visit the NBCC Media Center
  Listen Live to Vatican Radio
requires Real Audio)
RECOMMENDED SITES
 Site Links

NBCC Spotlight Article

The Transatlantic Slave Trade

On the first leg of their three-part journey, often called the Triangular Trade, European ships brought manufactured goods to Africa; on the second, they transported African men, women, and children to the Americas; and on the third leg, they exported to Europe the sugar, rum, cotton, and tobacco produced by the enslaved labor force. There was also a direct trade between Brazil and Angola that did not include the European leg. Traders referred to the Africa-Americas part of the voyage as the "Middle Passage" and the term has survived to denote the Africans' ordeal.

Article Index

Spotlight Article Index

Faith STILL Engaged

Preparing for Priesthood

Black Catholic from Kentucky receives Papal Award

Bishop Leonard Olivier Celebrates 25th Anniversary

Our Lady of Guadalupe/International Shrine of St. Jude & Knights of Peter Claver and Ladies Auxiliary Respond to Tornado Victims in Oklahoma City

Julia Greeley: Denver’s Saintly Woman

Canonization for Mother Mary Lange

Pope Benedict XVI resigns from the Papacy

Bible study drawing devotees from near and far.

Bishop Moses B. Anderson, SSE, entered eternal life on January 1, 2013, at the age of 84.

Signed. Sealed. Delivered. I’m Yours: Our Wedding/Marriage Journey

Brooklyn Castle: The True Story of America's Best Chess Team

The National Black Catholic Congress Congratulates Black Catholic Leaders with Servant of Christ Award

Those who Serve: Msgr. Patrick R Wells

"FOCUS Worldwide Network"

Archdiocese of Indianapolis Day of Reflection

Dwayne D. Davis

Spotlight Article Index

Well over 30,000 voyages from Africa to the Americas have been documented. But numbers and statistics alone cannot convey the horror of the experience. However, the records provide detailed information on some aspects of this tragedy.

The dreadful Middle Passage could last from one to three months and epitomized the role of violence in the trade. Based on regulations, ships could transport only about 350 people, but some carried more than 800 men, women, and children. Branded, stripped naked for the duration of the voyage, lying down amidst filth, enduring almost unbearable heat, compelled by the lash to dance on deck to straighten their limbs, all captives went through a frightening, incredibly brutal and dehumanizing experience.

Men were shackled under deck, and all Africans were subjected to abuse and punishment.

Some people tried to starve themselves to death, but the crew forced them to take food by whipping them, torturing them with hot coal, or forcing their mouths open by using special instruments or by breaking their teeth.

Subscribe to the Black Catholic Newsletter

The personal identity of the captives was denied. Women and boys were often used for the pleasure of the crew. Ottobah Cugoano, who endured the Middle Passage in the eighteenth century, recalled: "it was common for the dirty filthy sailors to take the African women and lie upon their bodies."

Mortality brought about by malnutrition, dysentery, smallpox, and other diseases was very high. Depending on the times, upwards of 20 percent died from various epidemics or committed suicide. Venture Smith, describing his ordeal, wrote: "After an ordinary passage, except great mortality by the small pox, which broke out on board, we arrived at the island of Barbadoes: but when we reached it, there were found out of the two hundred and sixty that sailed from Africa, not more than two hundred alive." It was not unusual for captains and crew to toss the sick overboard; and some even disposed of an entire cargo for insurance purposes.

On board slave ships, in the midst of their oppression, the Africans, who were often as much strangers to each other as to their European captors, forged the first links with their new American identities. Relationships established during the Middle Passage frequently resulted in revolts and other forms of resistance that bound them in new social and political alliances. Ottobah Cugoano described the attempted revolt organized on the ship that took him from the Gold Coast to Grenada: "when we found ourselves at last taken away, death was more preferable than life; and a plan was concerted amongst us, that we might burn and blow up the ship, and to perish all together in the flames . . . . It was the women and boys which were to burn the ship, with the approbation and groans of the rest; though that was prevented, the discovery was likewise a cruel bloody scene."

The special relations created on the ship lasted a lifetime and were regarded by the deported Africans, torn from their loved ones, as strongly as kinship. They had special names for those who had shared their ordeal. They were called bātiments in Creole (from the French for ship), sippi in Surinam (from ship), and shipmate in Jamaica.

Far from wiping out all traces of their cultural, social, and personal past, the Middle Passage experience provided Africans with opportunities to draw on their collective heritage to make themselves a new people.

http://www.inmotionaame.org/home.cfm

to top of page

NBCC
NBCC

Web Design : Web Marketing : Web Management : Baltimore Maryland - SLEEPER Technologies
 
An STI Site | Web Design by SLEEPER Technologies
Copyright © 2003 www.nbccongress.org | All Rights Reserved | Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without the expressed written permission of www.nbccongress.org is prohibited.